Borderline Schizophrenia

Borderline schizophrenia is also called pseudoneurotic schizophrenia, and although it’s uncommon, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia can co-occur.

Borderline Personality Disorder and Schizophrenia

Borderline schizophrenia is also called pseudoneurotic schizophrenia, and although it’s uncommon, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia can co-occur.

Most mental health problems aren’t clearly defined. Multiple mental health illnesses related to one another are frequent in some persons, such as depression and anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a substance use disorder (SUD).

The same is true for specific individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), which can coexist with schizophrenia.

It can be helpful to become familiar with each disorder individually in order to comprehend how the co-occurring disorders of borderline personality disorder and schizophrenia might appear.

And even though each ailment is serious, managing symptoms is doable with the appropriate treatment strategy.

What Is Schizophrenia?

Schizophrenia is a long-term mental condition characterized by difficulty distinguishing between one’s own delusions and reality.

Delusions, hallucinations, disordered speech, disordered or catatonic conduct, and negative symptoms including limited emotional expression and decreased motivation to engage in activities are all signs of schizophrenia.

People with schizophrenia frequently struggle to continue functioning at the same level as before the onset of their symptoms in domains including job, interpersonal connections, and self-care.

Types of Schizophrenia

Up until the most recent version of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the DSM-5, which was published in 2013, schizophrenia was divided into 5 subtypes, even when some people think there are only 3 types of schizophrenia:

  1. Paranoid Schizophrenia: People with paranoid schizophrenia experience at least one delusion or frequent auditory hallucinations.
  2. Disorganized Schizophrenia: The symptoms of disorganized schizophrenia include disorganized thought, disorganized speech, and flat affect.
  3. Catatonic Schizophrenia: In addition to other symptoms of schizophrenia, people with catatonic schizophrenia also experience catatonia, which may include unresponsiveness or restlessness.
  4. Residual Schizophrenia: In people with residual schizophrenia, symptoms of schizophrenia still exist but are weaker than in other subtypes.
  5. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia: If symptoms from more than one of the other subtypes of schizophrenia are present, but there aren’t enough to classify the individual in another subtype, they meet the criteria for undifferentiated schizophrenia.

Are there different levels of schizophrenia? These different levels of schizophrenia (schizophrenia cycles) were dropped from the DSM-5 in favor of utilizing a spectrum to categorize symptom severity due to the lack of clinical support for their use in treating patients and the instability among them as a result of schizophrenia’s unpredictable course.

borderline schizophrenia. Although it's uncommon, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia can co-occur.
Borderline Schizophrenia: Although it’s uncommon, borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia can co-occur.

Many mental health professionals still find the categories helpful in understanding the condition and choosing the most appropriate treatment for each patient, even though they are no longer used to diagnose schizophrenia. Even though a person presently displays symptoms connected to one of the categories, it’s crucial to comprehend that these symptoms can alter swiftly and that there’s no such thing as low-level schizophrenia.

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Schizophrenia Fact Sheet

Schizophrenia Overview

A condition that impairs a person’s capacity for clear thought, feeling, and behavior.
Although the precise origin of schizophrenia is unknown, it is thought that a mix of genetics, environment and altered brain chemistry and structure may be at play.

Schizophrenia is characterized by disorganized speech or behavior, depressed participation in daily tasks, and ideas or experiences that appear disconnected from reality. Memory loss and attention problems could also be present.

Treatment is typically ongoing and frequently consists of a mix of prescription drugs, psychotherapy, and well-coordinated specialty care services.

Schizophrenia Symptoms

Schizophrenia is characterized by disorganized speech or behavior, depressed participation in daily tasks, and ideas or experiences that appear disconnected from reality. Memory loss and attention problems could also be present.

Schizophrenia Treatments

Treatment is typically ongoing and frequently consists of a mix of prescription drugs, psychotherapy, and well-coordinated specialty care services.

Schizophrenia Statistics

A mental disorder called schizophrenia is characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotional responsiveness, and social interactions. Although each person’s experience with schizophrenia is unique, the condition is typically chronic and can be both severe and incapacitating.


With the risk being highest in the early stages of the illness, an estimated 4.9% of people with schizophrenia commit suicide, a rate that is significantly higher than that of the general population.

Source: National Insitute Of Mental Health

24 Million

Around 24 million people, or 1 in 300 persons (0.32%), globally suffer from schizophrenia. Adults at this rate make up 1 in 222 individuals (0.45%). It does not occur as frequently as many other mental illnesses.

Source: World Health Organization


The great majority of people with schizophrenia do not currently have access to mental health services. An estimated 50% of patients in psychiatric hospitals have a diagnosis of schizophrenia.

Source: World Health Organization

residual schizophrenia. Although it is uncommon, it is conceivable for someone to have both illnesses at the same time.
Borderline personality disorder schizophrenia: Although it is uncommon, it is conceivable for someone to have both illnesses at the same time.

What is Borderline Schizophrenia?

The fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders does not include the phrase “borderline schizophrenia” (DSM 5). Since 1980, it has not been acknowledged as a disorder.

Borderline psychosis was originally synonymous with borderline schizophrenia, sometimes known as pseudoneurotic schizophrenia (borderline schizophrenia is also called pseudoneurotic schizophrenia).

Later, this was separated into the modern diagnoses of borderline and schizotypal personality disorders (BPD).

However, there are certain symptoms between BPD and schizophrenia that are similar.

Can You Have Schizophrenia and BPD Together? Borderline Schizophrenic

Can you have BPD and schizophrenia? Although it is uncommon, it is conceivable for someone to have both illnesses simultaneously. But an additional study on the overlap between BPD and schizophrenia is still required.

Although a 2014 study found that co-occurring psychiatric disorders are common in patients with borderline personality disorder, the exact frequency of schizophrenia and BPD comorbidity isn’t yet known.

According to a 2010 study, 17.6% of those who were given a schizophrenia diagnosis also had BPD. However, a study from 2018 found that just 2% of females with BPD had schizophrenia.

Can Borderline Personality Disorder Lead to Schizophrenia? Can BPD Turn Into Schizophrenia?

Can BPD lead to schizophrenia? A dangerous ailment that needs medical attention is borderline personality disorder. It can seriously affect your life if it is not treated. Can BPD develop into schizophrenia, though? Despite the similarities between the two mental illnesses, borderline personality disorder cannot progress into schizophrenia.

Like schizophrenia, BPD is more common than it is. According to one study, BPD affects about 20% of patients receiving inpatient care, which is on the verge of reaching schizophrenia-like proportions.

Is BPD Schizophrenia? Difference Between BPD and Schizophrenia

Despite the fact that the two diagnoses can co-exist, schizophrenia is very distinct from BPD. While schizophrenia is defined by a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional dysfunctions, BPD is characterized by a pattern of instability in interpersonal interactions.

Are BPD and Schizophrenia Similar? Schizophrenia vs BPD – Borderline Paranoid Schizophrenia

If you or a loved one has both BPD and schizophrenia, learning the similarities and differences between these conditions can be helpful in understanding how they may interact.

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)

BPD is classified in the DSM 5 as a personality disorder, which is generally characterized by:

  • Rigid thinking
  • Atypical behavior
  • Difficulty maintaining stable relationships

Research from 2008 found that up to 5.9% of people may experience BPD at some point in their lifetime. Onset typically occurs during adolescence or young adulthood.


According to the DSM 5, schizophrenia belongs to the schizophrenia spectrum class of diseases. Schizophrenia, which has symptoms that suggest a weakened relationship to reality, affects fewer than 1% of the population and is among the top 15 causes of disability worldwide, according to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).


The term “psychosis” describes a profound detachment from reality. Hallucinations or delusions are common during psychotic episodes. Schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder both have psychosis as a potential symptom, although psychotic episodes in BPD are often brief, transient, and stress-related.

People with BPD are more likely than those with schizophrenia to experience hallucinations, though by a smaller margin. An estimated 29% to 50% of persons with BPD report hallucinations, according to research from 2021.

According to a 2021 study, between 60% and 80% of persons with schizophrenia are thought to report having these symptoms. Furthermore, unlike schizophrenia, BPD psychotic episodes usually do not come with negative symptoms or disarray.

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Borderline Schizophrenia Symptoms – Schizophrenia and Borderline Personality Disorder Comorbidity

While the coexistence of BPD and schizophrenia is uncommon, some symptoms may be similar. It can be useful to be aware of the variations in how each condition’s symptoms can seem and feel. Don’t try to self-diagnose, or do an internet “borderline schizophrenia test”, it is important to always consult a psychiatrist. Some signs of borderline schizophrenia can include:

Schizophrenia vs Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms

Schizophrenia symptoms

Schizophrenia symptoms generally fall under three categories:

  • Positive symptoms: this includes psychosis (including hallucinations and delusions), disordered thinking and speech, altered sensations
  • Negative symptoms: these symptoms include reduced motivation, difficulty planning, suppressed emotions, social withdrawal
  • Cognitive symptoms: this can include trouble with attention or concentration, memory loss, difficulty absorbing information, trouble making decisions

BPD symptoms

Some of the most common symptoms of borderline personality disorder include:

  • Sweeping shifts in mood and behavior
  • Varying perceptions of self and others
  • Emotional instability, including episodes of anger
  • Depression and anxiety
  • Unstable relationships with friends, family, and romantic partners
  • Impulsivity
  • Feeling a lack of purpose or emptiness
  • Self-harm
  • Suicidal ideation

A significant but smaller percentage of people with BPD may also experience:

  • Dissociation
  • Hallucinations
  • Delusions
  • Paranoia

Please seek immediate professional assistance if you’re thinking of taking your own life due to suicidal thoughts.

Causes of Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that is thought to be caused by a number of factors, including:

  • Genetics: Although genetics alone does not cause schizophrenia, having a parent, sibling, or another close relative who has the disease increases the likelihood of having it by nearly six times.
  • Environmental: Interactions with particular surroundings may enhance the incidence of schizophrenia in those with genetic risk factors. Stress can lead to schizophrenia, even though it is not the cause. Additionally, a person’s risk is increased if they have poor nutrition or are exposed to a virus before to birth.
  • Brain chemistry: According to research, the sizes of particular brain regions, the connections between them, and the interactions of neurotransmitters like dopamine in the brains of persons with schizophrenia are all different from those of people without the disorder.
  • Drug use: Cannabis and other mind-altering substances can raise the risk of schizophrenia in teenagers and young adults.

It is impossible to pinpoint the exact cause of schizophrenia in any one person because multiple factors may play a role in its onset.

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Borderline Personality Disorder vs Schizophrenia (BPD vs Schizophrenia): Causes of Borderline Schizophrenia

At this time, doctors are unsure of the exact causes of BPD and schizophrenia, and additional research is required. It is thought that these diseases occur in part as a result of genetics, physiology, and environment.

These illnesses are more likely to occur as a result of a complicated interaction between numerous sources than from just one single factor.


Despite the fact that neither BPD nor schizophrenia has a specific gene that causes them, it is obvious that family history may have an impact on how these disorders develop.

A 2017 analysis of twin research revealed that if one identical twin experiences schizophrenia, there may be a greater likelihood that the other will as well.

borderline schizophrenia. It is thought that BPD or schizophrenia occurs in part as a result of genetics, physiology, and environment.
BPD schizophrenia (Borderline Schizophrenia): It is thought that BPD or schizophrenia occurs in part as a result of genetics, physiology, and environment.

According to research from 2021, there is a larger likelihood of BPD in family members of individuals who already have it. However, this does not imply that having a family member with one of these disorders makes you more likely to get it yourself.


Experiencing trauma early in life can be a contributing factor to developing BPD. A 2021 review indicates that up to 90% of people living with BPD experienced childhood trauma, including:

  • Physical, verbal, or sexual abuse
  • Neglect
  • Bullying

A different 2021 review suggests that environmental sources may account for between 15% to 40% of the chance of developing schizophrenia, but those sources are believed to be more diverse than those that contribute to BPD.

This may include:

  • Complications at birth
  • Certain infections during pregnancy
  • Season of birth
  • Social factors, such as migration and living in cities
  • Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), like abuse and neglect
  • Drug use, especially cannabis


Differences in neurotransmitter levels — especially serotonin and dopamine — may impact the development of both schizophrenia and BPD.

And, it’s not just your brain chemicals. Regions of the brain in charge of emotion regulation and impulse control — including the amygdala and hippocampus — may look and function differently in people with BPD.

Neuroimaging research from 2018 of people with schizophrenia showed significant differences in the size and activity of the frontal and temporal lobes, which play a large role in:

  • Memory
  • Emotion
  • Language functioning

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Borderline Schizophrenia Treatment

Schizophrenia typically first manifests in early adulthood and has no known treatment. Treatment is therefore required to guarantee that individuals can manage the illness. Therapy and antipsychotic medicines are examples of these treatments.

Antipsychotic Drugs

Antipsychotic drugs lessen the severity and duration of schizophrenia symptoms and are often taken as a daily pill or liquid. They could, however, cause unwanted side effects like weight gain and tiredness. Even though antipsychotic drugs have side effects, once someone starts taking them, they shouldn’t stop because doing so could make their symptoms worse.


For patients with schizophrenia, cognitive-behavioral therapy is one available kind of treatment.

Another choice is assertive community treatment. People with schizophrenia who are at high risk of homelessness and institutionalization can benefit from assertive community treatment. It also involves regular interactions with patients.

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We Level Up Dual Diagnosis Treatment

The exact definition of dual diagnosis (also referred to as co-occurring disorders) can differ between institutions.  However, it is generally described as the specific treatment of someone who has been diagnosed with a substance use disorder and a mental health disorder at the same time.

Treating dual-diagnosis clients is a critical aspect of our inpatient treatment experience because co-occurring disorders are strongly correlated with instances of substance abuse. Creating a treatment plan that addresses the physical aspects of withdrawal, the psychological connection with drug use, and managing underlying mental health disorders is part of setting clients up for success. 

A thorough mental health analysis identifies possibilities for treatment.  Meeting with mental health counselors and medical care providers means access to behavioral therapy and medication treatment.

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It can be challenging to accept that you may be living with a mental illness, but once it is properly diagnosed and treated, treating the presenting case of substance abuse can be magnitudes easier. Only a properly trained medical professional can diagnose these underlying conditions.  If you believe you are suffering from a disorder alongside addiction, we urge you to seek a qualified treatment center to begin your journey to recovery. Call We Level Up today.

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[1] About Mental Health – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

[2] Mental Health Treatment Among Adults Aged 18–44: United States, 2019–2021 – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

[3] Mental and Behavioral Health – African Americans – Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health

[4] Men’s Mental Health Presentation –

[5] Dal Santo T, Sun Y, Wu Y, He C, Wang Y, Jiang X, Li K, Bonardi O, Krishnan A, Boruff JT, Rice DB, Markham S, Levis B, Azar M, Neupane D, Tasleem A, Yao A, Thombs-Vite I, Agic B, Fahim C, Martin MS, Sockalingam S, Turecki G, Benedetti A, Thombs BD.

[6] Cortical brain abnormalities in 4474 individuals with schizophrenia and 5098 controls via the ENIGMA consortium.

[7] Prevalence, Correlates, Disability, and Comorbidity of DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder: Results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

[8] World Health Organization –