What Is Borderline Personality Disorder?
BPD is among several personality disorders (such as paranoid personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder). According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) , personality disorders are generally characterized by:
- Entrenched patterns of behavior that deviate significantly from the usual expectations of the behavior of the individual’s culture.
- Behavior patterns that are inflexible, pervasive, and resistant to change. Emergence of the disorder’s features no later than early adulthood (unlike depression, for instance, which can begin at any age).
- Lack of awareness that behavior patterns and personality characteristics are problematic or differ from those of other individuals.
- Impairment and distress in one or more areas of a individual’s life (often only after other individuals get upset about his or her behavior).
- Behavior patterns that are not better accounted for by the effects of substance abuse, medication, or some other psychiatric disorder or medical condition (such as head injury).
BPD is a serious and complex psychiatric or mental illness. Individuals with BPD are often misdiagnosed and misunderstood. Childhood trauma history (e.g., sexual or physical abuse, early parental loss, neglect) is more common for people with BPD. Many individuals suffering from BPD may have developed BPD symptoms to cope with childhood trauma. However, it is essential to note that not all people with BPD have a history of childhood trauma.
It is also important to note that some of BPD symptoms overlap with those of several other DSM-5 diagnoses, such as bipolar disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thus, BPD diagnosis should be made only by an experienced and licensed mental health professional (whose range of practice includes diagnosing mental disorders) and then only after a comprehensive assessment over time. People with BPD frequently need considerable attention from their therapists and are typically considered challenging clients to treat. However, BPD may not be the chronic disorder it was once thought to be.
People with BPD often respond to proper BPD treatment and may have an excellent long-term prognosis, experiencing a remission of symptoms with a relatively low occurrence of relapse. The DSM-5 indicates that BPD is diagnosed more often in women than in men (75 percent and 25 percent, respectively).
Other research, however, has suggested that there may be no gender difference in prevalence in the general population but that BPD is linked with a significantly higher level of physical and mental disability for women than it is for men. In addition, the types of co-occurring conditions tend to be different for women than for men. The most common co-occurring disorders in women are major depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and PTSD. Men with BPD are more likely to have co-occurring substance use disorder and antisocial personality disorder, and they are more likely to experience episodes of explosive or intense anger.
What Kind of Trauma Causes BPD? What are the Causes of BPD?
What trauma causes BPD? A number of environmental factors seem to be common and widespread among people with BPD. These include:
- Being a victim of emotional, physical or sexual abuse
- Being exposed to long-term fear or distress as a child
- Being neglected by 1 or both parents
- Growing up with another family member who had a serious mental health condition, such as bipolar disorder or a drink or drug misuse problem
A person’s relationship with their parents and family has a strong influence on how they come to see the world and what they believe about other people. Unresolved fear, anger and distress from childhood can lead to a variety of distorted adult thinking patterns, such as:
- Idealising others
- Expecting others to be a parent to you
- Expecting other people to bully you
- Behaving as if other people are adults and you’re not
What Are the Symptoms of BPD?
The DSM-5 classifies mental disorders and includes specific diagnostic criteria for all currently recognized mental disorders. DSM-5 is a useful tool for diagnosis and treatment, but it is also a tool for communication, providing a standard language for researchers and clinicians to discuss symptoms and disorders.
According to the DSM-5, the symptoms of BPD include:
- Intense fear of abandonment and efforts to avoid abandonment (real or imagined).
- Turbulent, intense, and erratic relationships usually involve vacillating perceptions of others (from extremely positive to extremely negative).
- Lack of a sense of self or an unstable sense of self.
- Impulsive acts that can be hurtful to oneself (such as risky sex, excessive spending, reckless driving).
- Repeated suicidal gestures or behavior or self-mutilating behavior.
- Chronic feelings of emptiness.
- Episodes of intense (and usually inappropriate) anger or difficulty controlling anger (such as repeated physical fights, inappropriate displays of anger).
- Temporary feelings of paranoia (often stress-related) or severe dissociative symptoms (such as feeling detached from oneself, trancelike).
Anyone with some of these symptoms may need to be referred to a licensed mental health professional for a complete assessment.
Examples of Symptomatic Behavior (BPD)
Patterns of unstable and intense relationships Jonathan comes in to see his case manager, Luke, and announces that he plans to marry a woman he met at a speed-dating app the night before. Luke has heard this same story from Jonathan at least once a month for the past four months.
Emotions that seem to switch quickly from one extreme to another Susan has been working with a vocational rehabilitation counselor, Tom, for two weeks to prepare for job retraining. One day, just after Tom gets everything set up for Susan to start her training, Susan storms out of the office screaming at him, “You’re just trying to get rid of me! You don’t understand me at all! I hate you!” Later, when Tom calls to suggest that maybe Susan would prefer to work with another counselor, Susan starts to cry and says, “Please don’t drop me, Tony! I need you!”
Evidence of self-mutilation or self-harm. Joshua is a probation officer. During his weekly appointment with his client, Alice, Joshua notices a pattern of recent cuts across her left forearm. Joshua asks her about them, and Alice becomes defensive and says, “Okay, I cut myself sometimes, so what? It’s none of your business. I’m not hurting anybody!”
A pattern of suicidal thoughts, attempts, or gestures. Melanie is a nurse. As she looks over the health history of her new patient, Samantha, she notices that Samantha has been hospitalized three times in the past four years after suicide attempts, and that she has seen six different therapists. Samantha tells her, “Yeah, I get suicidal sometimes. I just can’t seem to find the right therapist who can help me.”
Intense displays of emotion that usually seem inappropriate or out of proportion to the situation. Julia is a social worker at a domestic violence shelter. She notices one of her clients, Elsa, sitting in the living room with a sketchpad in her lap. Julia asks if she can see what Elsa is drawing. Elsa turns the sketchpad around to reveal a beautiful, detailed drawing of the shelter house.
Julia admires it and says how beautiful it is, then says, “That’s funny, I thought that the house number was on the right side of the door.” Elsa, who had been smiling, takes the sketchpad from Julia, looks at the drawing, then rips it from the pad and begins tearing it up, saying, “You’re right, it’s all wrong! I’ll have to start all over again!”
Regarding the word gestures: It is dangerous to dismiss or label any suicidal behavior as a gesture. Anyone who exhibits suicidal thoughts or behaviors of any kind needs to be assessed by a licensed mental health professional.
What is BPD Caused By? What causes BPD?
What causes a person to have BPD? According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) , the cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) (how do you develop borderline personality disorder) is not yet clear, but research suggests that genetics, brain structure and function, and environmental, cultural, and social factors play a role, or may increase the risk for developing a borderline personality disorder. What are the main causes of BPD?
Family History. People who have a close family member, such as a parent or sibling with the disorder may be at higher risk of developing a borderline personality disorder.
Brain Factors. Studies show that people with borderline personality disorder can have structural and functional changes in the brain, especially in the areas that control impulses and emotional regulation. But is it not clear whether these changes are risk factors for the disorder, or caused by the disorder.
Environmental, Cultural, and Social Factors. Many people with borderline personality disorder report experiencing traumatic life events, such as abuse, abandonment, or adversity during childhood. Others may have been exposed to unstable, invalidating relationships, and hostile conflicts.
Although these factors may increase a person’s risk, it does not mean that the person will develop a borderline personality disorder. Likewise, there may be people without these risk factors who will develop borderline personality disorder in their lifetime.
What Causes BPD in The Brain? What Causes BPD to Develop?
Problem with brain chemicals
What is the cause of BPD? Many BPD sufferers are known to have issues with their brain’s neurotransmitters, especially serotonin. Your brain uses neurotransmitters, often known as “messenger chemicals,” to send signals between brain cells. Serotonin imbalances have been linked to sadness, violence, and difficulties in resisting urges to do harm.
Problem with brain development
BPD what causes it? The brains of those with BPD have been examined by researchers using MRI. Strong magnetic fields and radio waves are used in MRI scans to create a detailed image of the inside of the body. The scans showed that 3 brain regions either exhibited very high or low levels of activity in many BPD patients. Such components were:
- The amygdala, which is crucial for controlling emotions, especially those that are more “negative,” such fear, anger, and anxiety
- The orbitofrontal cortex, which is involved in planning and decision-making,
- The hippocampus, which aids in behavior regulation and self-control
It’s possible that issues with certain areas of the brain are a factor in the symptoms of BPD. Your early environment has an impact on the way certain brain regions grow. These regions of the brain are also in charge of controlling your mood, which may explain some of the difficulties people with BPD face in intimate relationships.
There is no definitive medical test to diagnose BPD, and a diagnosis is not based on one specific sign or symptom. BPD is best diagnosed by a mental health professional following a comprehensive clinical interview that may include talking with previous clinicians, reviewing previous medical evaluations, and, when appropriate, interviews with friends and family.
How Do People Get BPD? What Causes Someone to Have BPD?
What can cause BPD? Healthcare providers believe BPD results from a combination of factors, including:
- Childhood abuse and trauma: Up to 70% of people with BPD have experienced sexual, emotional or physical abuse as a child. Maternal separation, poor maternal attachment, inappropriate family boundaries and parental substance use disorder are also associated with BPD.
- Genetics: Studies show that borderline personality disorder runs in families. If you have a family history of BPD, you’re more likely — but not guaranteed — to develop the condition.
- Brain changes: In people with BPD, the parts of their brain that control emotion and behavior don’t communicate properly. These problems affect the way their brain works.
How common are personality disorders?
Personality disorders are among the most common severe mental disorders and often co-occur with other mental conditions, such as mood disorders (depression or bipolar disorder), substance abuse disorders (SUD), and anxiety disorders. It is estimated that 10 percent to 13 percent of the world’s population struggle in some form of personality disorder.
Most personality disorders start in the teen years when the personality continues to develop and mature. As a result, almost all individuals diagnosed with personality disorders are above the age of 18.
Some personality disorders—such as borderline personality disorder (BPD) and histrionic personality disorder—are more common in women, and others—such as obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder—are more common in men. Many individuals in prison also have a diagnosable personality disorder.
Psychotherapy is the first-line treatment for people with a borderline personality disorder. A therapist can provide one-on-one treatment between the therapist and patient or treatment in a group setting. Therapist-led group sessions may help teach people with borderline personality disorder how to interact with others and how to effectively express themselves.
It is important that people in therapy get along with, and trust their therapist. The very nature of borderline personality disorder can make it difficult for people with the disorder to maintain a comfortable and trusting bond with their therapist.
Two examples of psychotherapies used to treat borderline personality disorder include:
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): This type of therapy was developed for individuals with a borderline personality disorder. DBT uses concepts of mindfulness and acceptance or being aware of and attentive to the current situation and emotional state. DBT also teaches skills that can help:
- Control intense emotions
- Reduce self-destructive behaviors
- Improve relationships
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): This type of therapy can help people with borderline personality disorder identify and change core beliefs and behaviors that underlie inaccurate perceptions of themselves and others and problems interacting with others. CBT may help reduce a range of mood and anxiety symptoms and reduce the number of suicidal or self-harming behaviors.
Because the benefits are unclear, medications are not typically used as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder. However, in some cases, a psychiatrist may recommend medications to treat specific symptoms such as:
- Mood swings
- Other co-occurring mental disorders
Treatment with medications or medication-assisted treatment (MAT) may require care from more than one medical professional. Certain medications can cause different side effects in different people. Talk to your doctor about what to expect from a particular medication.
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What Cause BPD? FAQs
Can BPD cause tics?
Tics are not within the list of symptoms of BPD.
Can BPD cause hypersexuality?
Some BPD sufferers exhibit pronounced impulsivity, seduction, and excessive sexuality. For both men and women with BPD, sexual promiscuity, obsessions with sexuality, and hypersexuality are highly common symptoms.
Can narcissistic abuse cause BPD?
What is the main cause of BPD? About 80% of those diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are actually are suffering from CPTSD from Narcissistic Abuse with abandonment issues.
Can BPD cause memory loss?
Memory can be affected by dissociative thoughts—known as dissociative amnesia—when those with BPD forget things too often or too much to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness.
Can BPD cause delusions?
In people with BPD, auditory hallucinations and delusional thoughts (particularly paranoid delusions) are rather common.
What causes BPD rage?
Rage in a person with BPD can occur suddenly and unpredictably, often triggered by an intense fear of being alone. Fear of rejection can be so intense that they begin to anxiously expect rejection. Subtle cues that they associate with rejection can set off unexpectedly intense reactions.
What causes quiet BPD?
Some potential causes of quiet BPD may be the result of: Family history of various personality disorders. History of other mental health conditions (anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, eating disorders, substance abuse, depression, etc.) History of neglect, abuse, trauma, or abandonment in childhood.
What causes BPD splitting? What causes splitting in BPD?
A split might often be caused by an event that triggers the extreme binary emotions that characterise BPD. Sometimes, these events might seem harmless or small to people without BPD, but they may in some way relate to previous trauma. This event might spark fears of abandonment, separation or severe anxiety.
Can weed cause BPD?
BPD what causes it? Cannabis abuse is common among those with BPD, however cannabis does not cause BPD. In America, about 6% of persons have BPD, and of those, 85% also have a drug use problem (SUD). These figures demonstrate a link between substance usage and BPD, however no research has linked cannabis use to the disorder.
Can BPD cause an eating disorder?
Eating disorders are more common in people with borderline personality disorder than in the general population.
Can BPD cause physical pain?
Indeed, investigators estimate that an attenuated pain response to acute self-inflicted injury may occur in up 80 percent of individuals who are diagnosed with BPD.
Do narcissistic parents cause BPD? What causes BPD in childhood?
Children of narcissistic parents who are abusive may acquire BPD or another personality disorder. But the borderline personality disorder isn’t brought on by narcissism per se. Abuse has the potential to exacerbate genetic predispositions to BPD.
Can BPD cause hallucinations?
BPD patients can experience hallucinations or even delusions similar to schizophrenia. Patients with BPD had higher scores in Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scales (PSYRATS) in the amount and degree of malicious content and distress from auditory verbal hallucinations, compared to patients with schizophrenia.
What causes BPD to get worse? What causes BPD episodes?
The most common BPD triggers are relationship triggers. Many people with BPD have a high sensitivity to abandonment and can experience intense fear and anger, impulsivity, self-harm, and even suicidality in relationship events that make them feel rejected, criticised or abandoned.
What causes BPD mood swings?
The sudden mood swings experienced in BPD may be caused by overactivity in these regions of the brain—or by the dysfunction of serotonin or other neurotransmitters which help determine our mood. BPD is a disorder based on emotional dysregulation.
What Causes Petulant BPD?
Most petulant BPD behaviors stem from a fear of abandonment, lack of self-worth, and an inability to self-soothe. With the right treatment, you can resolve these challenges and overcome petulant borderline personality disorder.